It is suggested that street planning might be a basic one of resilient theories as it takes account of the pedestrians themselves and the full use of urban space, moreover controlling the car use is also a priority to pay attention. On the one hand if a city is focused on freeways that is dominated by cars, the extra speed of freeway enables residents to spread outwards rapidly in a low density city, because the freeway becomes the preferred option quickly. But on the other hand if a city does not establish freeways but prefers to emphasize transit, street planning may be an important part of a sustainable transport system (Gehl and Gemzoe, 2000). Streets can be designed to favor cyclists and pedestrians, what is more wherever it is finished, cities find that they become much more attractive and business-friendly, such as Copenhagen and London. The reason is that the streets are used for multiple purposes. No only reducing automobiles use, it pays more attention on reaching efficiency by improving people movement, as well as the high quality of amenity and safety for all street users, because when traffic speed slows down, it can provide more opportunities for people to communicate and create a peaceful atmosphere. In this decade, some governments even have picked up policy on using transport facilities as public space. For instance some US and European cities are attempting to establish the ‘complete streets’ or, in the UK, ‘naked streets’, these are the street only for pedestrians and cyclists without any automobiles. This new strategy aims to create streets enabling to manage car use and encouraging walking and cycling that are lower speed traffic (Pearson, Newton, Roberts, 2014).
The sustainability and its associated city planning based on reducing automobile dependence, should also incorporate walking and cycling (Newman and Kenworthy, 1999). Today, the importance of walking and cycling is becoming prominent increasingly, as a result some cities especially in Europe, are paying attention to their walking cores and building new walking scale street as people find the joys of attractive pedestrian areas, moreover many cities are also developing cycle ways and other cycle infrastructure, such as cycle storage system and dedicated traffic signals for bikes. Differently the high density developing cities cycling might be a difficult transport, for example the bicycle share in Guangzhou decline from 33.8 percent in 1992 to 13.3 percent in 2010 (Ma, 2004). There are a number of reasons for this, the essential one is that the decline is accelerated by government policies, which is focused on motor use primarily. Despite the metro system has effectively reduced the car use, it still needs concern about the traffic congestion and traffic accidents even climate change because of the over population density, for example, in Shanghai, during 1994 to 1998, the number of traffic accidents rose from 12,634 to 23,996 (Zacharias, 2002). Under this situation, people begin to consider about the cycling gradually because cycling is more convenient to park than cars, even more effective and faster to reach their destinations. By the end of February 2012, public bikes sharing programs have been carried out in twelve Chinese cities with 5331 stations and 180,500 bikes, Chinese government has begun to revisit cycling policies. Some strategies were sought to oppose bicycle use restrictions and overcome cycling barriers, for example the new separated bike lanes in Beijing, and “green road”, which is convenient for cyclists, is building in Shenzhen, and Guangzhou (Zhang, Shaheen and Chen, 2014). Street planning is a significant resilient theory as it can directly manage the mobility. The walking and cycling should be developed with high quality transit systems. They might be the most direct ways to reduce CO2 emissions from automobiles, and are also opportunities for training physical fitness of people.Thus the two go together might be feasible to manage short distance journeys on foot or by bike and longer cross city trips by transit.
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Newman, P. and Kenworthy, J. 1999. Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence, Island Press, Washington, DC.
Ma X. 2004. Enlightenment on the variations in the structure of Guangzhou inhabitant mode share. Urban Transport of China 2(2):29–32.
Pearson, L.J. Newton, P.W. Roberts, P. 2014. Resilient Sustainable Cities, a Future, Routledge, New York.
Zacharias, J. 2002. Bicycle in Shanghai: Movement patterns, cyclist attitudes and the impact of traffic separation. Transport Reviews 22(3):309–322.
Zhang，H.，Shaheen，SA和Chen，X。2014. 中国的自行车演变：从20世纪到现在。 国际可持续交通杂志，8：317-335。