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Figure 1

Some of my earliest memories are of Cape Town in the late 1990s. Apartheid had just ended in 1994 and yet the country was still very segregated and unequal. It was normal to live behind large walls and security systems, to always have your car doors and windows locked, to never walk down the pavement to the shops on your own. The only time I could play in the street was at my grandmother’s house, who lived within a gated community, however I never saw any other children there.

Almost 26 years on from the end of this racist regime, South Africa is still battling the aftereffects of Apartheid. Steps taken to reduce crime within the city is supported by landscape architects and urban designers who strive to integrate communities, ‘…spatial construction in urban environments should no longer be attached to intractable functions or intent on isolation’ (“12 Projects that Explain Landscape Urbanism and How It’s Changing the Face of Cities,” 2016).

Figure 2

Khayelitsha is Cape Town’s largest informal settlement, situated 30km outside the city centre (“Khayelitsha,” 2017). The Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading (VPUU) program is an organisation that strives to create safer, less isolated and more sustainable neighbourhoods to enhance the quality of life of the residents (“Who We Are,” n.d.).  The organisation aims to reduce the rate of crime in Khayelitsha through urban landscape and design proposals (Green, 2014). The VPUU say that they are involved in ‘co-creating safe and sustainable neighbourhoods to improve quality of life for all residents’(“Homepage,” n.d.). They proposed to create four ‘safe nodes’ within the township that would each benefit up to 50,000 people using a team of experienced planners and urban landscape designers (Green, 2014) and set out a number of goals to guide them:

To clearly highlight what is public and private through design.

Designing areas for children to play and residents to unwind.

Provide a visible, accessible and adequately lit pedestrian pathway.

Create sustainable interventions within the landscape.

Provide maintainable, long lasting materials and proposals.

(“Case Study 2,” n.d.)

Figure 3

This project highlighted to me that it is important to always consider crime prevention when designing urban landscapes to allow residents to feel safe. So what can we do about it?

Clear visibility is a very important aspect when attempting to eliminate crime through design. A space that is open and easy to access tends to give residents more confidence within the space and this is especially true of women and children. In a study by the College of Policing, they show that CCTV does not reduce the rate of antisocial behaviour and spur of the moment crime, only crime that is premeditated. Therefore, design of the space is of key importance (“How Landscape Architecture and Urban Design Can Reduce Crime,” 2019). However, when designing, stress from the client, site, conditions and the budget can cause us to lose sight of how we could effectively and successfully design with crime prevention in mind. Therefore, defining common strategies to combat crime at the beginning of each project is critical to the design process. These strategies could include:

Adequate connections to the surrounding urban environment.

Distinctive and easy to navigate routes through the space.

A series of several pathways for residents, not just one.

Wide pavements to encourage families and groups.

Creating nodes.

Supplying a range of facilities that are open 24hrs to encourage more people on the street late at night.

Lower heights of trees, bushes and plants to improve visibility through the space.

Adequate lighting.

Signs to show exit strategies if required.

Maintaining the space regularly to encourage a welcoming environment.

(“How Landscape Architecture and Urban Design Can Reduce Crime,” 2019)

  The VPUU project based in Khayelitsha has provided inspiration for other informal settlements in Cape Town and there are currently a further 10 projects proposed by VPUU across the city. A member of the Cape Town city government praised the project and claimed it was so successful as “the development is human-scale. We also clearly defined the hierarchy of spaces, what was public, private, and semi-private.”(Green, 2014). There are evidently other aspects of this project that made it so successful, in particular, encouraging a transfer of skills and providing employment for residents through community participation. This gave the residents a sense of ownership and motivation to maintain the space, in turn fostering a sense of pride for the environment and helping to reduce crime and vandalism. Further community participation was implemented by setting up a neighbourhood watch and local security group which reassured residents when using public spaces and increased the numbers of people on the streets (“Case Study 2,” n.d.).


References:

12 Projects that Explain Landscape Urbanism and How It’s Changing the Face of Cities [WWW Document], 2016. . ArchDaily. URL http://www.archdaily.com/784842/12-projects-that-show-how-landscape-urbanism-is-changing-the-face-of-cities (accessed 1.12.20).
Case Study 2: Khayelitsha; Cape Town, South Africa [WWW Document], n.d. . Global Designing Cities Initiative. URL https://globaldesigningcities.org/publication/global-street-design-guide/streets/streets-informal-areas/recommendations/case-study-2-khayelitsha-cape-town-south-africa/ (accessed 1.12.20).
Challenges and opportunities for socio-spatial integration in Cape Town [WWW Document], n.d. URL https://www.afd.fr/en/carte-des-projets/challenges-and-opportunities-socio-spatial-integration-cape-town (accessed 1.12.20).
Homepage [WWW Document], n.d. . VPUU. URL http://vpuu.org.za/ (accessed 1.12.20).
How Landscape Architecture and Urban Design Can Reduce Crime, 2019. . Land8. URL https://land8.com/how-landscape-architecture-and-urban-design-can-reduce-crime/ (accessed 1.12.20).
In Cape Town, Urban Design Reduces Violence – THE DIRT [WWW Document], n.d. URL https://dirt.asla.org/2014/05/01/in-cape-town-urban-design-reduces-violence/ (accessed 1.12.20).
Khayelitsha: Your Neighbourhood Guide [WWW Document], 2017. . Cape Town Travel. URL https://www.capetown.travel/travel-like-a-local-your-neighbourhood-guide-to-khayelitsha/ (accessed 1.12.20).
Who We Are, n.d. . VPUU. URL http://vpuu.org.za/who-we-are/ (accessed 1.12.20).
Yolande Hendler, 2018. Khayelitsha Open Space Upgrading, Cape Town. South African SDI Alliance. URL https://www.sasdialliance.org.za/projects/khayelitsha-open-space-upgrading-cape-town/ (accessed 1.12.20).
Fig.1 Miller Johnny, Unequal Scenes, 2016, https://www.boredpanda.com/unequal-scenes-drone-photography-inequality-south-africa-johnny-miller/?utm_source=google&utm_medium=organic&utm_campaign=organic.
Fig. 2 Beyond our Borders, The Khayelitsha Project, 2020, http://beyondourborders.net/the-khayelitsha-project/
Fig. 3 Ewing Kathryne, Water tap redevelopment, 2014, https://dirt.asla.org/2014/05/01/in-cape-town-urban-design-reduces-violence/

One response to “Landscape Urbanism and the Prevention of Crime”

  1. This is an issue close to my heart, thank you Becky for this important and unique write up. You describe your earliest memories of Cape Town as an Apartheid country, and I can relate to this on a deeper level since I also grew up in a post-colonial African country.

    You explain some of the effects of apartheid and the urban moves that had been taken to isolate the city’s residents from each other. Like many other African countries, south Africa faces high levels of poverty, coupled with high levels of unemployment (Shonteich, 2002). And one of the resulting effects of these, are higher levels of crime. According to Landman (2008), many citizens have responded in their own way with the development of defensive architecture and gated communities. But is this an effective/holist method to solving the issues?

    The gated communities have been studied to mostly be effective on the perception of crime (Booysen, 2002). Booysen (2002) describes people living within these enclaves as feeling safer, in studies conducted on the perception of crime in South Africa. The VPUU program you discussed is already a tremendous success because of its focus on the human scale. Anchoring the program on physical reintegration has been largely successful, however I wonder if this can be bolstered through socially empowering programs.

    Lee et al (2013), argues that the consumption of security in gated communities is not only concerned with the utilitarian ideas of crime but also the promises of class and privilege. Although the VPUU (CPTED) provides Positive alternatives to gated communities, they often have the comparable intentions. There is no doubt that Urban designers are intending to create good public spaces for all. However, according to Midtveit (2004), many of these ideas behind these soft methods indicate a hierarchical outlook that does little to lessen the marginalization of some groups.

    In this manner, soft methods, although having many humane advantages and a declared inclusion, come to redeliver distinct power relations in society. And in this manner simply conform to social stratification processes. This ethical dilemma is significantly worsened by the fact that soft methods of crime prevention render the very action of marginalization nearly unnoticeable for everyday users. In this way citizens are prevented from even reflecting, talk less of a reaction. I would therefore like to suggest that a better way to safer cities would be simply to empower citizens. Presenting opportunities to develop the human capital rather than designing hard or soft methods of crime prevention.

    References
    Booysen, A (2001). Enclosed neighbourhoods in perspective. Unpublished thesis. University of Pretoria: Town and Regional Planning Department.

    Landman, K. (2008). Gated neighbourhoods in South Africa: an appropriate urban design approach? URBAN DESIGN International, 13(4), pp.227–240.

    Midtveit, E. (2005). Crime Prevention and Exclusion: from Walls to Opera Music. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 6(1), pp.23–38.

    Pow, C.-P. (2013). Consuming private security: Consumer citizenship and defensive urbanism in Singapore. Theoretical Criminology, 17(2), pp.179–196.

    Schönteich, M (2002) “Crime levels in South Africa, its provinces and cities” (online) available from : , http://www.gatedcomsa.co.za/crime.htm [accessed :13 January, 2020]

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School of Architecture
Planning and Landscape
Newcastle upon Tyne
Tyne and Wear, NE1 7RU

Tel: 0191 208 6509

Email: nicola.rutherford@ncl.ac.uk


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