Ancient street and social space
In many centuries street always places to meet peoples in ancient times. Where economic activity happens in the streets. In ancient Rome street take huge role to the activity in city center. Active frontage directly touched with the street and streets connected with square and monuments. Street act like a path that connect each node and make as personal space for the people (Lynch, 1959)
In early 1920 first motorway has been built in Europe as demand of invention of a car (Wikipedia) From that time movement from point to point become much easier. And Network of road build to connect between cities. Not for long time road network overtaking the actual street in the cities. To accommodate economic demands to prosper the city. Since industrial revolution in early 1950 cities vision of modern days become more grid to act as symbol of efficiency and futuristic (Corbusier,1929).
At this time street now overtaken by the cars. Connecting tissue of city now linked by network of car roads and diminished the essence of street as social hub for the people. Sidewalk become more like accessorize to the street with no comfortable for people to make social interaction. Speed of the car become faster makes pedestrian even more danger to walk in sidewalk. This also criticized by Jane Jacobs that street should be place for social interactions happens and make the urban form stronger and not segregated by motorway (Jacobs, 1961)
Street as part of urban design
The movement of reducing motor ways come in Europe to consider the importance of well-being in the streets as part of reconnecting each building. Regeneration of high street as pedestrian only can create social interaction in the street with active frontage. In this long corridor of high street, they try to redesign the space for people can interact with place landscape and street furniture.
Design of new street that increase walkability and connection at the same time try to reduce the need of car has been developed in recent decades. There is some key aspect to create new street as social hub for people (Street design for all, 2014):
- Mixed use street
To make the street not for the car it need to make wider pedestrian street and gives be spoke design to the pedestrian. Pedestrian should be place near the corridor of active frontage. Try to mixed the function of the building with low to medium density to encourage movement of the people. Shop and beverage can be place to attract passerby to interact in the street and ensure movement of people can happen every time.
Bicycle infrastructure also part of mixed use street that need to separate from the car road. With the place of bike parking and introducing of bike sharing scheme in the city movement can go further and safer.
2. Insert affordable BRT and Transit system
Transit system and BRT is the key factor to reduce the number of the car. With short transit system that inside walkable coverage can make the city more walkable. The system can use the existing street to reduce the road or using subway system. Tram system is well known as transit system that have attractive value to the city and various mode of transit system also can have great impact to create more walkable city.
3. Make social pocket place in the street
To create interaction in the street designing pocket place in the junction of the street that contains streetscape or street furniture can help people to stop and rest. In hot climate area provide shading to make people comfortable to walk. Water features can be provide so the people can interact with it and creating good place making
4. Increasing green infrastructure in the street
Promoting green line into the street can be good criteria for make people wants to walk. Landscape can be function as a barrier from direct road. Landscape in the street corridor also can reduce the speed limit of the car and make saver pedestrian. Landscape also can be function as bio drain to absorb excess water from the road and some of them can be form as swale and use for flood prevention system.
1. Lynch. K., 1959. The Image of The City. Massachusetts,UK : The MIT Press
2. Le Corbusier, 1929. The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning. 3rd ed, London : Architectural Press
3. Jacobs. J, 1961. The death and life of Great American city, New York, US : Random house
4. Davis. C.J., Street Design for all, 2014, United Kingdom: Public Realm Information and Advice Network (PRIAN)