Jakarta as capital city of Indonesia Contains 10,54 million people with total area 661,5 km2 approximately half of total area of London city with the same number of peoples. Jakarta is the densest city in south east Asia with 14.464 people/km2.
Because of 17% of economic country centered in Jakarta (BPS statistic, 2018) it impacted in bursting of opportunity in this city creating huge urbanization flow through this city. This condition creates huge burden to the city and the growth of resident population keep increase without good city planning.
This make this city exclusive for economic purpose such as office and trade. There is no room for housing to provide. In this case housing price in the city centre also unbelievable high for average citizen in the city. To accommodate this, need the citizen of Jakarta looking for house in the satellite city around Jakarta. This model of sprawl defined as “a process of large-scale real estate development resulting in low-density, scattered, discontinuous car-dependent construction, usually on the periphery of declining older suburbs and shrinking city centers.” (hayden,2004). In the maps below shown that satellite city around Jakarta has emerged into greater megacity called greater Jakarta.
People of Jakarta can buy their house in faraway that can reach 40 km from city centre of Jakarta. Because the land price and house price still affordable for them. This cause several condition of urban sprawl that toward severe effect to the peoples. This condition of urban sprawl triggered by several reason because of:
- Land ownership system owned by individual so it causes land price in the city have high price that cannot be affordable for average people
- Lacked of government or municipality of Jakarta interventions in housing scheme that can tackle house demand
- Culture of Jakarta people that better lives in landed house rather that in flat building makes difficult to create stacked house. This condition creates much smaller land parcel that below minimum standard.
- Disparity of average income of the peoples and the house price affordability too far
- Government policy that adding more highway create more number of car to cope with the commuter.
This overall condition makes the citizens of Jakarta to force live further and commute longer. With increasing number resident to commute also increasing number of highway and create more congestion. Even lacked of public transport people don’t have a choice to travel with car or motorcycle. In other side land opening for housing disturb natural environment such as water catchment area create flooding in the city because the land opening happened in surrounding Jakarta. The congestion also causes massive smog that can occurred to healthy.
How to tackle this sprawl?
Urban sprawl happens in most cities that automobile dominated the land such as America (Bruegmann, 2005) and it’s also happens around the world. All sector must proactive to solve this problem much from regulator and politician to see this as serious for the future. Of the city will be death lock. To solve this sprawl there is 7 principles that make better city (Calthorpe and Fulton 2001):
- Preserve natural ecologies and cultural heritage
- Create mixed use and mixed income neighbourhood
- Design walkable street and human scale neighbourhood
- Prioritize bicycle network and auto free street
- Increase density of road network to create connectivity
- Develop transit system and affordable BRT
- Focus on most Transit capacity
- BPS Statistic Indonesia, Gross Regional Domestic Product of Provinces in Indonesia by Industry, 2018
- Hayden, D. (2004). A Field Guide to Sprawl. New York: W. W. Norton and Company
- Calthorpe, P. & Fulton, W. (2001). The regional city. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
- Bruegmann, Robert (2005). Sprawl: A Compact History, USA: The University of Chicago Press.